Modal Verbs

1. Modals


Modal Verbs

(Модальні дієслова)


Have to

Need (to)

Ought to










May or Might



Можливість у теперішньому чи майбутньому (may/might + do)

·                    It might rain in the evening.

·                    Julia may be reading at the moment.


Можливість у минулому (may/might + have done)

a) щось могло виявитись правдою

б) щось було можливим, але не відбулось

·                    You may have left the door unlocked.

·                    We might have brought some presents for children.

Ввічливе запитання / Прохання дозволити (в офіційному мовленні: may; більш офіційно: might)

·                    May I use your pen?

·                    Might I conduct research in this laboratory room?

Надання дозволу (в офіційному мовленні: may)

·                    You certainly may use the lab.

·                    You may stay here as long as you need it.

Відмова у дозволі

·                    You may not leave the workplace if there is no one else at the reception.


Shall or Should

Пропозиція та припущення (shall)

·                    Shall I pick you up at seven?

·                    Shall we go bowling today?

Питання про пропозицію або вказівку (shall)

·                    Where shall I meet you?

·                    When shall we do it?

Порада (should + do)

·                    You should accept this job offer.

·                    You should relax more often.

Критика (should  + have done)

·                    You should have prevented her from taking such a risk.

·                    You should have come earlier.



Зобов`язання / необхідність

·                    I must go to this meeting.

·                    I must finish the composition tonight.

Заборона / Відмова у наданні дозволу

·                    You mustn`t smoke here.

·                    You mustn`t cross the border without a passport.

Наполеглива порада

·                    You must revise for your exam.

·                    If it still hurts, you must see a doctor.

Стверджувальне логічне припущення

·                    It`s quite late; they must be back.

·                    Look at his clothes – he must be a sailor!

Can or Could

Здатність у теперішньому (can)

·                    I can see.

·                    She can sing beautifully.

Здатність у минулому (could)

·                    I could be very fast when I was younger.

Прохання надання дозволу (informal: can)

·                    Can I ask you a question?

·                    Can I be honest with you?

Прохання надання дозволу (more formal: could)

·                    Could I have a look at these documents?

·                    Could I consult with you about this issue, Mr. Jones?

Надання дозволу (can)

·                    You can join us if you want.

·                    You can come in.

Пропозиція / припущення

·                    How can I help you?

·                    We could go to the cinema tonight.

Прохання (informal: can / more formal: could)

·                    Can you borrow me some money?

·                    Could you help me with filling in this application?

Заперечне логічне припущення (can`t)

·                    No, she can`t be a student; she`s only 12 years old.

·                    They can`t be Americans; they speak perfect British English.

Можливість / ймовірність

·                    He could be working - I saw him going to his office twenty minutes ago.

·                    They could arrive soon.

Можливість у минулому, яка не здійснилась (could + have done)

·                    I could have done it better.

·                    You could have tried harder.

Для всіх часів можна вживати структуру be able to

·                    I will always be able to recognize their faces.

·                    She was able to win the race.